Analysis of factors affecting safety and optimizat

2022-09-21
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Analysis of factors affecting safety and optimization of measures

railway transportation safety is not only the result of the joint cooperation of vehicle, machinery, industry, electricity, vehicle and other departments, but also the result of the coordination and matching of human, machine, environment, software and hardware. The failure or error of any link may threaten the safety of railway operation

first, influencing factors

in railway traffic accidents, one is the accident of the train in the section, and the other is the accident of the train in the station. In these two types of accidents to ensure that customers achieve excellent products, in addition to the reasons for the errors of the locomotive driver himself, the work errors of the train operators (including the station attendant, signalman and assistant attendant) at the station are also the main reasons. In the daily station safety management, there is often a lack of systematic methods to ensure the safety of train operation; In the analysis of accidents, it is often one-sided, excessive and simple to attribute the causes of the accidents to the "carelessness", "blindly seeking speed", "weak sex" and so on, ignoring the physiological limits and psychological factors of operators, ignoring the relationship between operators and equipment, and ignoring the relationship between operators and the environment

human error is one of the most important reasons for the failure of the train receiving and departure system in railway stations. According to our actual work experience, information perception, information processing and operation errors are the most important reasons. Due to environmental, psychological, physiological and other reasons, operators "did not accurately perceive information" and "provided inappropriate information". On the other hand, due to the large amount of information, the ability of station attendant or signalman to feel information is limited by physiology and psychology, and there is a sensory threshold. When the signal stimulus approaches the upper and lower limit of the perception threshold in the receiving and departure train, people are most likely to have sensory errors. The visual organ is one of the most important organs to receive all kinds of information, but a large amount of information is received through the visual organ, resulting in an excessive visual burden, which is easy to cause operators to make wrong judgments. In addition, human processing of information is limited by the channel determined by human signals. Research shows that people have only a single channel of decision, and all information should pass through this channel in order, which is why people can only pay attention to one thing at a time. When two information are transmitted to the brain at the same time, one of them must wait until the other is put into working memory for processing, and then scan from one information source to another. The environment of the train receiving and departure system at the station includes working environment, natural environment and social environment committed to cooperating with customers in the whole value chain. Human production activities are always inseparable from a specific environment. A certain working environment will make operators produce a certain psychological state, which determines the "competitive state" of operators. Among the five senses (vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch) that the human body reflects external stimuli, vision is the most important. All kinds of indicating instruments, devices, signal displays, etc. of modern transportation production control system rely on visual organs to receive information. The irradiance and distribution of natural light or artificial light sources are unreasonable, which will cause blurred vision or visual fatigue, resulting in wrong judgment or operation. A comfortable environment conforms to the psychological requirements of human body, which helps operators feel happy and concentrate, so as to promote safe production

in the railway station receiving and departure train system, if the spring installed on the train has not been strictly tested, the machinery and equipment involved include console, signal centralized closing equipment, etc. Console failures include some button failures, malfunctions, etc. Faults, noises, and sudden failure of the annunciator are also common. Although the failure rate of the equipment is not high, the equipment plays a vital role in the station receiving and departure train system. The reliability and timeliness of hardware facilities are particularly important

there is a close relationship among human, machine and environment. As shown in the following figure: all three are the main factors affecting safety. If one of them has problems, it may cause hidden dangers, reduce the safety factor, and cause accidents. At this time, other factors, even if particularly normal, cannot guarantee safety. conversely. The impact of safety also affects other factors. 3. Regularly check the screws at the jaw until all three are damaged, causing a vicious circle. If it is not corrected or corrected in time, the safety hole will become larger and larger, and the loss will be even heavier

the relationship between safety and its influencing factors

with the six speed increases of the railway trunk line, the speed increase and reconstruction project of the existing line can be said to be carried out in an all-round way within the scope of the whole road, and the contradictions between construction and transportation, construction and safety, construction and efficiency have become prominent. In the long run, the construction and reconstruction of technical equipment serve to expand the transportation capacity and improve the driving and transportation environment. The starting points of construction and transportation are the same. However, at present, a large number of technical equipment reconstruction and construction on the existing line affect a certain transportation efficiency and transportation capacity, pose a great threat to the safety production of railway transportation, and severely punish and interfere with the normal transportation organization order of the railway, It poses a severe challenge to the railway safety management level and safety control ability, and we have learned a painful lesson in this regard. Therefore, leaders at all levels pay great attention to construction safety, which also forms an unavoidable and prominent contradiction in railway safety work. As the railway vehicle management system in charge of passenger transport organization, freight transport organization, traffic organization and other work, the safety management of existing line construction has been put on the important agenda. How to strengthen the construction safety management of the existing railway rolling stock line has aroused my deep thinking. I feel that we should focus on five aspects: optimizing the construction plan, formulating targeted measures, training backbone teams, strengthening on-site monitoring, and improving the assessment and incentive mechanism

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